New Tax Haven Criteria Proposed by Transparency NGOs for European Investment Bank


(President of the EIB:Werner Hoyer)

In a new report published on Tuesday this week, transparency NGOs have called on the the Luxembourg-based European Investment Bank (EIB) to set up its own ‘Tax Unit’ to assess how much corporate tax its clients are paying, and produce its own analysis of tax havens rather than rely on the OECD’s ‘black and grey’ list of jurisdictions.


(Preident of the World Bank Group: Jim Yong Kim)

This would be in addition to existing criteria used by the World Bank Group to define tax havens loosely based on the work of the OECD Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information. The practical effect of this criteria is that private investors seeking support financing through the Bank’s International Finance Corporation, would be ineligible if the investment has a connection to a country that is on the OECD ‘black’ or ‘grey’ list; or is a jurisdiction that has been found to be less than compliant under the OECD Phase 2 assessment criteria, which is based on the translation of transparency norms into legal and regulatory practice.


The NGO report titled  ‘Towards a Responsible Taxation Policy for the EIB’ and published on April 21st this year, advocates that the the EIB, which is set to be the driving force behind the European Commission’s flagship €315 billion infrastructure investment fund,  should define a ‘tax haven’ based on whether or not they have a means of identifying and sharing the beneficial ownership  of a company.

The report by Re-Common and Counter Balance argues that this would allow the EIB to ascertain who ultimately owns, controls or benefits from a company or fund that receives its support. They also recommend that the EIB clients should also be required to produce country-by-country-reports.

Counter Balance

This development should not come as a surprise because last year I flagged renewed  efforts in the European Union to revisit the definition of tax havens along the lines suggested in the NGOs Report. As a result the EIB  already has a policy commitment to preventing tax avoidance, money laundering and other damaging activities, including a general prohibition on investments linked to non-compliant jurisdictions (NCJ) or tax havens.Indeed this demand for all companies seeking EIB funds to publish country-by-country-reports (CBCR) also featured in a European Parliament report adopted in March 2014. At present, EU rules require CBCR only from banks and firms in the extractive and logging sectors.


According toAntonio Tricarico, the report’s author, ‘Recent revelations such as Luxleaks and Swissleaks prove that Europe is losing out billions of euros because of tax dodging, and in developing countries the situation is even worse.

Fueling this move by the NGOs is a report by the Illicit Finance Journalism Project last October which found that the EIB had lent money to a number of companies operating in tax havens. One example cited was Qalaa, an African investment fund with $9.5 billion on its books, which has received hundreds of millions of euros from the EIB, and is domiciled in the British Virgin Islands.

It is important to note that the EIB, Qalaa and the jurisdictions in which or through which this investment fund raised money have acted within the legal rules. More here.


Predictably, given the constituency of the EIB,  in response to the report the Bank noted that most of the reforms proposed by the report would require legal changes to be agreed by MEPs and ministers.


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